Zephyr North Ltd.

Zephyr North Ltd. sells software for wind flow in complex terrain on behalf of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC, a service of Environment Canada). The titles are shown below. Note that the GLW software is not an MSC product.

MS-Micro/3
MS-Micro/3 is a numerical model for estimating wind speed variations in complex terrain. It runs on a microcomputer using the DOS operating system. In general, it can run on Windows in a DOS compatibility box or command line mode.
Main Features:
  • Three-dimensional steady-state surface boundary-layer flow
  • Spatial variations in terrain height and/or surface roughness
  • Results at any height or heights above ground
  • High spatial resolution at low computing cost
  • Neutral thermal stratification
  • Mixing-length turbulence closure
  • Horizontal scales of order 100 m to 10 km
  • Terrain slopes less than 0.3 to 0.5
  • Amplitude of roughness-length variations of order 0.001 to 1000
Principal Uses:
  • Wind energy site selection
  • Wind resource estimates
  • Wind loading estimates
  • Local climatological studies
  • Evaluation of representativeness of measured wind data
Supplied Software:
  • Source and executable code
  • Routines for use with Calcomp 2000, 2300 or 9100 digitizers for preparing topographic and roughness input files
  • Routines for use with EGA/VGA monitor for quality-control and display
Plotting routines may require a graphics monitor and/or plotter and the separate purchase of commercial software – see below.
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Plotting Options:
  • The purchaser may supply a graphics package to plot files that are written in standard SURFER output – see below.
  • The purchaser may obtain the GEOGRAF drivers from:
    GEOCOMP Corporation, 342
    Sudbury Road,
    Concord MA 01742, USA
    Telephone: 1-508-369-8304,
    FAX 1-508-369-4392).
    Cost at November 1991: US$75 per driver plus shipping and handling.
  • The purchaser may obtain the SURFER graphics software from Golden Software Inc., P. O. Box 281, Golden CO 80402, USA (Telephone: 1-303-279-1021). Cost estimate is about US$500.
References:
  • Taylor et al., 1983: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 26, 169-189.
  • Walmsley et al., 1986: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 36, 157-186.
MSFD-PC
MSFD-PC is a numerical model for estimating wind speed variations in complex terrain. It is a new generation model (Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference, Personal Computer version) that retains many of the advantages of its parent, MS-Micro/3.
Main Features:
  • Three-dimensional steady-state surface boundary-layer flow
  • Spatial variations in terrain height and/or surface roughness
  • Results at any height or heights above ground
  • High spatial resolution
  • Computation is much faster than a 3D Finite-Difference Model, but about 20 times slower than MS-Micro/3. Unlike MS-Micro/3, however, computation time is independent of the number of output levels.
  • Neutral thermal stratification; stable stratification version is being developed
  • Turbulence closure: mixing length, E- ε, or E-ε-τ
  • Horizontal scales of order 100 m to 10 km
  • Terrain slopes less than 0.3 to 0.5
  • Amplitude of roughness-length variations of order 0.001 to 1000
Principal Uses:
  • Wind energy site selection
  • Wind resource estimates
  • Wind loading estimates
  • Local climatological studies
  • Evaluation of representativeness of measured wind data
Whereas MS-Micro/3 is a practical model for applications, MSFD is primarily a research model. The higher-order turbulence closure options, however, provide information on turbulence and turbulent kinetic energy that is not available in MS-Micro/3.
Compiler:
The Lahey F77L-EM/32 Version 5.0 Compiler was used to generate the executable code. Some extensions to the FORTRAN-77 Standard were used in the source code, but these exceptions are in the FORTRAN-90 Standard.
Supplied Software:
  • Executable code
  • Routines for use with Calcomp 2000, 2300 or 9100 digitizers for preparing topographic and roughness input files
  • Routines for use with EGA/VGA monitor for quality-control and display
Plotting routines may require a graphics monitor and/or plotter and the separate purchase of commercial software – see below.
Plotting Options:
  • The purchaser may supply a graphics package to plot files that are written in standard SURFER output – see below.
  • The purchaser may obtain the GEOGRAF drivers from:
    GEOCOMP Corporation, 342
    Sudbury Road,
    Concord MA 01742, USA
    Telephone: 1-508-369-8304,
    FAX 1-508-369-4392).
    Cost at November 1991: US$75 per driver plus shipping and handling.
  • The purchaser may obtain the SURFER graphics software from Golden Software Inc., P. O. Box 281, Golden CO 80402, USA (Telephone: 1-303-279-1021). Cost estimate is about US$500.
References:
  • Taylor et al., 1983: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 26, 169-189.
  • Walmsley et al., 1986: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 36, 157-186.
GLW (Guidelines for Windows)
GLW (Guidelines for Windows) is a graphical implementation for Windows of the simple Guidelines developed in Taylor and Lee (1984) and Taylor et al. (1989) for estimating wind flow in simple complex terrain situations.
Main Features:
  • Estimation of wind speed, speed-up, and Σu profiles for complex terrain characterized by heterogeneous surface roughness and/or topography
  • Topographic features treated: 2D ridges, valleys, escarpments; 3D hills, basins; 2D rolling topography; 3D rolling topography; user-defined features
  • Wind speed input measurements can be defined at remote ‘reference’ site
  • Instantaneous computations allow immediate graphical feed-back – useful for teaching and sensitivity analysis
  • Comprehensive colour or black&white print output (Professional Version)
  • Output to graphics file (WMF or EMF) for easy inclusion in reports (Professional Version)
Principal Uses:
  • Wind energy site selection
  • Wind resource estimates
  • Wind loading estimates
  • Local climatological studies
  • Evaluation of representativeness of measured wind data
  • Teaching: wind flow in complex terrain
  • Wind calculations for air-quality dispersion analysis
References:
  • Taylor et al., 1983: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 26, 169-189.
  • Walmsley et al., 1986: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 36, 157-186.
ShelCorr
ShelCorr (Shelter Correction) is a graphical software implementation of the shelter correction model developed by Taylor and Salmon (1993) for estimating wind speed reduction due to sheltering from nearby obstacles. It runs under DOS. (A Windows 95/98/NT/3.1 version will be developed.)
Main Features:
  • Estimation of wind speed reduction by various types of obstacles
  • Obstacle types treated: 2D fences, dense lines of trees; 3D flat low buildings, ridged low buildings, flat cubical buildings, ridged cubical buildings, vertical cylinders (silos), hemispheres (domes), single tree, open line of trees
  • ‘Porosity’ of the obstacle is taken into account
  • Recommendations for wake moment coefficients are provided for various obstacle types
  • Comprehensive colour or black & white print output (Professional Version)§ Output to graphics file (WMF or EMF) for easy inclusion in reports (Professional Version)
Principal Uses:
  • Wind resource estimate corrections
  • Wind loading estimate corrections
  • Local climatological study corrections
  • Corrections to historical wind data in sheltered locations
  • Evaluation of representativeness of measured wind data
  • Teaching sheltering effects
  • Corrections to wind calculations for air-quality dispersion analysis
References:
  • Taylor, P.A. and J.R. Salmon, 1993: A Model for the Correction of Surface Wind Data for Sheltering by Upwind Obstacles, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 32(11), 1684-1694.